THE BEST OF THE MARSHALL MEMO

How to energize leadership, teaching, and learning in 22 key areas

Beliefs About Students:

Selected Memo Summaries

How smart and talented we think children are has a surprising impact in classrooms and homes. This selection of Marshall Memo summaries explores “fixed” versus “growth” mindsets, how intelligence has been measured, ways that wisdom and a sense of efficacy can be developed, and strategies for changing students’ life trajectories for the better. 

Questions to consider:
  • What is the role of innate ability in children’s lives?
  • How do beliefs about ability and intelligence affect classroom interactions?
  • Is it possible to change educators’, students’, and families’ beliefs about intelligence?

Here's the table of contents:

Beliefs About Students


Beliefs About Intelligence and Ability

  1. Learning to be "smart" in kindergarten
  2. The influence of mindsets
  3. Walking the talk on growth mindset in mathematics classes

How Measures of Intelligence Are Used

  1. Five reasons to stop using IQ tests
  2. Using tests to promote equity
  3. Ideas and cautions about multiple intelligences
  4. Misreading children's futures

Developing Efficacy and Wisdom

  1. Helping students develop self-efficacy
  2. Fostering positive academic mindsets
  3. Changing students' thoughts and feelings about achievement

Changing Students' Trajectories

  1. Useful applications of mindset thinking
  2. What it takes to boost the performance of low-achieving students
  3. How geniuses are made

Professional Learning Suggestions